History of the Sea of ​​Azov

History of the Sea of ​​Azov


Of the Sea, as well as people, is not similar to one another. They are unique not only in its outward appearance, size, depth, but the contours of the coast line, the composition of flora and fauna and even the color of the water and nature.

Most original and historical fate of the Seas, is inextricably linked with the history of the peoples who lived on their banks and those who went out on boats and ships in their waters. Azov Sea also has its own, its specific features and characteristics. First of all, the dimensions of this unique Smallest sea. It is less than one and a half times the Aral and Caspian - ten times and the Black - eleven times ...

But in the history of the small sea takes a prominent place. Its current name it received about the middle of the XIII century - the name of the ancient trading center Azak that grew on the site of ancient Tanais, destroyed the Golden Horde. But as the Sea of Azov was at the intersection of the historical paths of nations, it is, perhaps, none of the reservoirs of the world, was replaced by a variety of names in the past. The ancient Greeks called it Meothide that means - "nurse" for the shallowness of the Romans called him Palyus Meotis ("Meotian swamp"), the Scythians - Kargulac ("rich in fish"), Meots Timirindoy ("mother of the sea"). Genoese and the Venetians called it. Mare Fanya, the Arabs - Bahr el-Azov, Slavs - Surogsky or Blue ...

And in 1696, when the Russian army liberated the Sea of Azov from the Turkish invaders and reached the shores of the Sea of Azov, the smallest sea became the cradle of the first in the history of the Russian Navy.

The current shape of Azov and its adjacent seas purchased only during the Tertiary period, that is about a million years ago, when the earth is only a man appeared. Prior to that it was part of a huge ancient praokeana called geologists Tethys. But then in the ocean as a result of geological changes appeared larger islands - modern mountain ranges Carpathians, the Crimea, the Caucasus, Asia Minor. They are connected with each other, forming a separate enclosed pools. One of these pools consisted of the Aral Sea, Caspian, Azov and occupied the southern part of Ukraine.

On its shores and islands continued orogenic change, resulting in the area of the globe and became the current shape: Bottom of the Sea of Azov and the frozen rose by defining its shallow water and related natural features, without which the Azov Sea has become not just a great Bay of the Black Sea. The maximum depth of the sea does not exceed 14 meters, the volume - only 320 cubic kilometers, and the area - 37,800 square kilometers. The greatest length of the Sea has along its northern shores: the distance from the mouth of the Don River to the Arabatskaya arrow is about 400 kilometers. The greatest width - 200 kilometers.

In addition, the Sea of Azov in contrast to the enclosed seas, such as the Aral and Caspian, which is connected through the Kerch Strait and the Black Sea from the world's oceans. Hence, the level of Azov water is relatively constant, but the salinity of their significantly lower than in the ocean and the Black Sea. This is due to the shallow seas again, his desalinate Don and Kuban, as well as small streams Northern Azov, carrying into the sea their nutrient-rich water.

Geographical location and shallowness Azov Sea contribute to a good warming of its waters, so that it has the annual average temperature 11.5 degrees in winter nada sharply below zero, and is aligned to the summer air temperature up to 28 degrees. In the coastal zone in Primorsko-Akhtarsk and Taganrog were cases when the water warms up to 32 degrees! The climate of the Azov Sea basin - continental, the average annual rainfall is low - 300-500 mm. And only a small sea - a sensitive natural conditioner - softens Taurida sultry climate of steppes and turns in the resort area of the entire coast.

Besides the Sea of Azov - a natural "museum" of coastal forms. Throughout the coastline you will see the dog chanyh chain of shoals and islets. Among the largest islands - Biruchiy, Sandy and Turtle. By the way, the last - artificial outpost at the entrance to the port of Taganrog, and poured his Russian soldiers at the behest of Peter I - the founder of Taganrog.

But the main and most scientifically interesting feature of the coast of the Azov Sea - is its shallow-braids that narrow sandy strips pushed into the open sea for tens of kilometers. The largest of them are located on the north shore. This Beglitskaya braid whose length - 3 kilometers, Curve - 10 kilometers, 14 kilometers, Belosarayskaya, Berdyansk - 23 kilometers, Obitochna - 30 kilometers and Fedotov - 45 km .

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